Who Invented the Camera?

I was browsing the internet when I suddenly thought of the camera. It’s such a simple joy in our era – we have cameras in our phones, tablets and of coz, the cameras themselves. I have used so many cameras since I was in secondary school, learning to appreciate photography since young. I have very talented aunt who once owned a dark room to develop photos from films when she was young! That hard core! Unfortunately, none of her children share her enthusiasm. I wish I had the chance to check out her dark room before she renovated her house back then. I truly love all the shots she took of us when we were children. They are really memorable photos. Photos that made impact and leave deep impression over the years.

So, who invented this camera?? Such an awesome equipment. If camera is founded only now, he or she would be the most famous person in the world! A quick check on wikipedia and other write-ups.. and I came upon this chronology of how the camera is evolved… from discovery of light spectrums, exposures, chemical reactions, etc… it’s whole lot of science there, people!! So here’s the chronology of how the camera evolved.. be awed! And appreciate your cameras.. be it on the phone or the tablet, or just the camera itself!

Here is more of the camera’s complication history of invention:

5th-4th Centuries B.C.�Chinese and Greek philosophers describe the basic principles of optics and the camera.

1664-1666 Isaac Newton discovers that white light is composed of different colors.

1727 Johann Heinrich Schulze discovered that silver nitrate darkened upon exposure to light. 1794 First Panorama opens, the forerunner of the movie house invented by Robert Barker.

1814 Joseph Nic�phore Ni�pce achieves first photographic image with camera obscura – however, the image required eight hours of light exposure and later faded.

1837 Daguerre�s first daguerreotype – the first image that was fixed and did not fade and needed under thirty minutes of light exposure.

1840 First American patent issued in photography to Alexander Wolcott for his camera.

1841 William Henry Talbot patents the Calotype process – the first negative-positive process making possible the first multiple copies.

1843 First advertisement with a photograph made in Philadelphia.

1851 Frederick Scott Archer invented the Collodion process – images required only two or three seconds of light exposure.

1859 Panoramic camera patented – the Sutton.

1861 Oliver Wendell Holmes invents stereoscope viewer.

1865 Photographs and photographic negatives are added to protected works under copyright.

1871 Richard Leach Maddox invented the gelatin dry plate silver bromide process – negatives no longer had to be developed immediately.

1880 Eastman Dry Plate Company founded.

1884 Eastman invents flexible, paper-based photographic film.

1888 Eastman patents Kodak roll-film camera.

1898 Reverend Hannibal Goodwin patents celluloid photographic film.

1900 First mass-marketed camera�the Browning.

1913/1914 First 35mm still camera developed.

1927 General Electric invents the modern flash bulb.

1932 First light meter with photoelectric cell introduced.

1935 Eastman Kodak markets Kodachrome film.

1941 Eastman Kodak introduces Kodacolor negative film.

1942 Chester Carlson receives patent for electric photography (xerography).

1948 Edwin Land markets the Polaroid camera.

1954 Eastman Kodak introduces high speed Tri-X film.

1960 EG&G develops extreme depth underwater camera for U.S. Navy.

1963 Polaroid introduces instant color film.

1968 Photograph of the Earth from the moon.

1973 Polaroid introduces one-step instant photography with the SX-70 camera.

1977 George Eastman and Edwin Land inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

1978 Konica introduces first point-and-shoot, autofocus camera.

1980 Sony demonstrates first consumer camcorder.

1984 Canon demonstrates first electronic still camera.

1985 Pixar introduces digital imaging processor.

1990 Eastman Kodak announces Photo CD as a digital image storage medium.

Source: Yahoo!


A few months ago, I remember a friend asked me if I know of any bomohs or dukuns or pawangs. Apparently, his friend, a girl suspects that, she is a victim of “santau” or witchcraft, a spell which made her feeling unwell after she rejected a man’s love. Honestly, as resourceful as I could be, I don’t know any bomohs.

I think I know one but I don’t like the person as I know of his terrible and dubious character. So, I didn’t recommend him to her.

Now, unfortunately, things have been happening in my sister’s company. One of the cleaners has been afflicted with witchcraft/santau.

She’s been feeling unwell, having breathing difficulties and went to see numerous doctors but couldn’t be helped. So she suspected that, she was being “santau” so her husband took her to see one orang asli bomoh at Batang Berjuntai.

The moment the orang asli placed his hand on her head, he told her that she kena santau from a colleague who is working the same dept as her – as a cleaner. The orang asli even describe the woman’s looks to her. A slightly plump and pretty woman.

The cleaner never ate anything given by this woman. But she remembers she put her milk in the fridge. So maybe the woman go and put santau in her bottled milk.

After the session with the bomoh, she went back to work. The woman came with a bottle of Korean aloe vera drink and told the cleaner to drink it because she has been feeling “unwell”. The cleaner of coz didn’t want to drink so she lied that she just had a big breakfast and she’s full already. The cleaner told the woman to leave the bottle in the fridge so that, she can drink it later.

Then, she asked my sister and another staff to come to take a look at the bottled drink. The staff’s grand dad is also a bomoh but he’s a good one. He helps people to get rid of bad spirits. The staff knew a few tricks up her sleeves. She placed her finger into the water of the bottle and said a prayer. The water felt hot and sipping through her skin. The moment she took out her finger, her hand was trembling profusely.

Apparently, she could feel that the drink has been spiked with a really harsh santau and it’s too dangerous to drink it.

Actually, the whole department has been really careful. They don’t eat or drink things given by this wicked woman. So now, I told my sis to lock her room door, and lock all her drinks inside the drawer to avoid people from putting things in them when she’s not around. Also, not to trust anybody at all!

After the cleaner went to see the bomoh, she mandi air bunga and now, she’s feeling much better.

If you ask me, I would leave everything to God. I profess for the blood of Jesus Christ to protect us from any harm. I told my sister to say the same prayer and since she has a Bible in office with her, she flipped through the pages and the first thing that she was “directed” to read was this:-

” Don’t you know that you yourself are God’s temple and God’s spirit lives in you? If anyone destroy God’s temple, God will destroy him for God’s temple is sacred and you are that temple.” 1 Corinthians 3:16 -17

Yes, we shall not be afraid for Jesus is with us.

I also believe in karma actually. Yeah.. am that screwed up spiritually. Haha. Anyway, I am pretty sure one day, the wicked woman would have to stand before God to be accounted for all the misdeeds she has committed.. and karma will get her really bad for having committed such ill intention and malice towards a fellow human being!


When I was little, I was already a worry wart. I worried about school, exams and what is going to happen to me and siblings if my parents were gone, especially my mom. I worry that my mom would stop breathing in the middle of the night and would not wake up the next day. Sometimes at night, I would put my index finger in front of her nostrils to check if she’s still breathing. Or just glanced over to the chest and stomach to see if they were moving up and down.

When my cousin sisters and brother were born, I would check their baby cots every 5 minutes to see if they are alive. I would do the same thing, putting my finger across their noses to check or watched their small chests moving up and down. Yes.. I was that obsessive!

When I was in college, I loathed studying. I totally hate exams and I especially hated it when I had to turn friends down from going on trips or partying because I had to study. I was that serious. Have to get exams or things over with, then only I could go partying. By the time I passed my professional exams, most of my college friends had gone their own ways.

When I started working, I enjoy it so much that I wish I started working earlier. No more exams.. no more text books… no more worries.. so I think. I have to say, I think I am quite suited for working because by the time I finished work and used up my brain juice, I would be just too tired to even think of anything at night. My days of insomnia were over. Thank God!

Then real life happened. Oh boy. Nothing would prepare anyone for this thing called life. I would like to think my life is generally fine, it could be better? Nevertheless, I am very grateful that I have been blessed with a solid family and friends’ support, a roof over my head, a generally healthy social life – even though I think I am slowly moving towards becoming a reclusive hermit.

We’ve been through family tragedies – death, sickness, imprisonment, birth defects, surgeries and some other things that I couldn’t even mention here but, we somehow managed to come out from all these shit triumphant.. earning life battle scars and added another feather to our caps!

I would like to urge my friends who are suffering from life turbulence to hang on, gear up! Get your guns and grenades ready for life battle. We must do our best to fight for the things we believe in, to fight for the life we wanted, and fight till our very last breath.

If things are getting too unbearable or getting out of hand, we must always remember that we have choices. It’s never easy to make a call but, no matter what our decisions maybe – whether or not we may or may not regret it later, at least we do something about it.. rather than just sitting there, with both arms folded and just watch things falling apart. It’s better to cut losses earlier than to lose everything in the end.

Every life is worth fighting for. Don’t just give up. And comrades, I got your back.

15 rules designed to shift your happiness

Too good not to be shared!

15 rules designed to shift your happiness

By Karl Moore

Every day, most of us focus on the grey clouds in the sky. Life is dim and gloomy, and showers are just minutes away. But we forget something. We don’t remember that just behind those clouds, the sun is beaming brightly – every single minute of every single day. These are 15 rules designed to shift your perspective, helping you to rediscover the happiness you may have forgotten.

Rule #1 – Stop Feeling Sorry for Yourself! It’s not going to help the situation. It’ll only help you to wallow in a state of apathy, playing the victim. The kind of person that things happen to, but that can’t do anything about it. By stopping feeling sorry for yourself, you can actually get on and DO something about it. If you want to be happy – stop feeling sorry for yourself. “Self-pity is our worst enemy and if we yield to it, we can never do anything wise in this world.” -Helen Keller

Rule #2 – Be Grateful. Think of all the wonderful things you have to be grateful for right now. It could be your family. Or your health. Maybe your home. Your friends. Your brain. Your heart. Your spirit. We’ve all got amazing things in our own lives that make us smile with joy. And if we can count these blessings every day, we’ll discover a greater appreciation of the beautiful world we surround ourselves with. “If the only prayer you ever say in your entire life is thank you, it will be enough.” -Meister Eckhardt

Rule #3 – Say Yes More. We fight against what happens to us in life, rather than allowing it to be as it is. We resist it, rather than accepting it. We say “No!” rather than saying “Yes” – or even just “Okay.” By saying “Yes!” more to life, we go with the flow. Things become more enjoyable and positive, less stressful and anxious, and often the situation turns out for the better regardless. “I will say yes to every favor, request, suggestion and invitation. I will swear to say yes where once I would say no.” –Danny Wallace

Rule #4 – Follow Your Bliss. Bliss is what you’re doing when you’re wrapped up in the moment. When you’re so thrilled just to be doing it, it ceases even to be work anymore. Your bliss occurs when you’re living in the moment, and time doesn’t really matter anymore. It’s not for the money, it’s for the pleasure. “When you follow your bliss, doors will open where you would not have thought there would be doors; and where there wouldn’t be a door for anyone else.” –Joseph Campbell

Rule #5 Learn to Let Go. Remember, letting go doesn’t mean you “forgive” the person at the grocery store, or you “allow” that kind of behavior. It just means that you release the negative emotion inside of you. By releasing negative emotions, you’ll not only enjoy much more freedom in your life – you’ll also become more emotionally stable and less stressed too. “By letting it go it all gets done. The world is won by those who let it go. But when you try and try, the world is beyond the winning.” –Lao Tzu

Rule #6Do Random Acts of Kindness. The more we give, the more we receive. A Random Acts of Kindness or RAK is a small act of kindness that you grant to someone else in the world – for absolutely no reason whatsoever, without expecting anything in return. Just throw a little extra kindness out to the world – and watch how you find greater happiness starting to flood back into your own life. “If you want others to be happy, practice compassion. If you want to be happy, practice compassion.” -Dalai Lama

Rule #7 – Happiness Is Only Ever Now. We spend so much time waiting to be happy in the future, or worrying about the past, that we forget to live in the moment. But here’s the thing: Life is transient. The past has gone. The future is just a dream. The only time that truly exists ever is RIGHT NOW. RIGHT NOW is the ONLY time you can do or change ANYTHING in your life. And NOW is the only time you have. “Few of us ever live in the present, we are forever anticipating what is to come or remembering what has gone.” -Louis LArmor

Rule #8 – Experience, Don’t Hoard! Investing in experiences rather than material goods created greater lasting happiness. It doesn’t have to be big and it doesn’t have to be expensive. And you can always do it on your own, too. By living, and truly experiencing life, we feel more whole, fulfilled and authentic. So, experience – don’t hoard – and you will be happy. “When youre curious, you find lots of interesting things to do.” –Walt Disney

Rule #9 – Appreciate Both Sides of the Coin. The truth is that in order for you to experience true happiness in your life, you must experience sadness. Without sadness, we really can’t even understand what happiness is. Just enjoy and embrace all your life adventures. And when seemingly negative things happen, remember that it’s just the duality of life. It’s just the other side of the coin. It’s required. It’s part of the equation. “You don’t know when you’ve hit a peak until you’re coming down. And you don’t know when you’ve hit a trough until you’re climbing out. It’s all good.” –David Brent

Rule #10 – Be More Social. Countless studies on the science of happiness have turned up one single characteristic of the happiest and most successful people in society. They have a large social network! Don’t just wait for interesting people to stumble into your life. Keep going and going. Expand your social circle as far as you can. Be the person that walks through town and bumps into a dozen friends. “Let us be grateful to people who make us happy, they are the charming gardeners who make our souls blossom.” -Marcel Proust

Rule #11 – Love More! We must realize that we feel the most happy in life – when we are the one giving the love! The more we love others, the happier he became. The more we love the world around us, the happier we become. The more we love even our enemies, the happier we become. And best of all, WE can control the amount of love we give – and thereby control the amount of happiness we experience. “Love and kindness are never wasted. They always make a difference. They bless the one who receives them, and they bless you, the giver.” –Barbara De Angelis

Rule #12 – Have a Dream. Dream are critical. They light up life. Without them, we become bored, and tired, and apathetic. So, take this opportunity to really clarify your dreams. Take a pen and paper and spend an hour figuring out what you really dream about. But whatever you do, make sure you have a dream. They’re incredibly important. Dreams are the spark plugs of the spirit. Make sure yours are ready for action. “A person starts dying when they stop dreaming.” –Brian Williams

Rule #13 – Intention Sets Direction. Decide on where you’re going and how it’ll be for you – and it’ll happen. set your intention first. Make it clear that you’re going to have a great time, you’ll meet some fantastic people, and that it’s going to be wonderful. Set your general intention every morning and every night, too. The brighter and more positive, the better. Set your sunny intention – and you will be happy. “Whether you think you can or you can’t, you’re right.” –Henry Ford

Rule #14 – Enjoy Simple Pleasures. It’s an attitude. The ability to appreciate the happiness, the beauty, the pleasure in the simple things around us. Remember the simple things that you truly enjoy. Then take time out to experience them again. Or even better, turn them into little daily or weekly rituals, filling your life with sunshine. Quite simply, enjoy simple pleasures and rituals – and you will be happy. “Simplicity is the essence of happiness.” -Cedric Bledsoe

Rule #15 – Accept What Is. By accepting, welcoming, embracing what is, you clear all of your emotions. Your thoughts gain more clarity. You become happier. You experience more freedom. If you can change things, after accepting them, you’ll have a sharper mind and more energy to do so. Pointless worrying – there’s nothing you can do about it. Shrug and smile about it, that’s life. “Happiness is a function of accepting what is.” –Werner Erhard

Light at the End of the Tunnel

I guess many of us are probably still in shock of the GE13 results. It’s like watching victory only remained in our hands for mere seconds before dirty tactics were pulled, blackouts, extra ballot boxes, police totally not independent, alien voters.. to wrestle the rakyat’s voices and rights from our grasps. Again, we were cheated from what we strongly believe in.

I cried myself to sleep last night. I gave up watching tv as well as looking at the internet after the evil managed to form a government with simple majority (with magic tricks David Copperfield wouldn’t even be able to pull!). This is the new low in the history of our general election. I wonder how much lower one can get to do everything they could to hold onto power.

I questioned God – WHY? Why did You even let this happen? Isn’t the truth and justice should prevail? I heard nothing but only the beating of my heart and my breathlessness as I choked myself in tears to sleep. Then I realized that, it was the Devil’s doing to tear me away from the only God, so I revoked the Devil and proclaim Jesus’ blood. We may not understand what God’s plans are. But all we could do now, is to stay vigilant and be ready when He unleashes His wrath to the evil to make things right.

I woke up this morning, drag myself to wash my face and brush my teeth. It’s going to be another day for the next five years. I was touched when I read messages from friends around the globe, words of encouragement and feeling of togetherness. They are right. We have not lost yet. The battle has just begun. The people has managed to wrestle 7 more parliamentary seats compared to the previous election. This alone, is an achievement. I bet, without gerrymandering done despicably by the ruling party, the results would be reversed! 80% turn out is not a small matter. It took each and every rakyat to come out to stand for what is right.

When I was at the polling station yesterday, I spoke to some of the people there and everyone chatted like old friends eventhough we have never met. We are all for a cleaner and fairer government, to put an end to corruption once and for all, to vote for the future of our children. One lady even ask me to touch her head where she was knocked by a helmet in a robbery incident and I just met her like 5 minutes? We all talk like old friends. I bumped into some ex neighbours. Eventhough they have moved out more than 15 years ago, they came back to this old hometown to cast their votes! I saw old friends who had moved to neighbouring countries, and they all came back to vote!

I even saw all races sitting together at the entrance of the school to watch out for alien voters. It was raining in the afternoon and yet, the people didn’t budge. They stood under the trees and bus stop shelters while keeping their eyes peeled open, watching entrance like a hawk!

It matters because of this working together, we managed to wrestle the state seat and maintain the parliamentary seat! Kudos to the people of Selayang!

I would like to end this post with a status from a friend, Edmund JP in his facebook. It comforted me dearly and I hope it does the same for you. Let’s not lose hope. In darkness, we use faith to see with our hearts, not our eyes. We will continue this fight till our last breaths! Be forewarn!

Written by Edmund JP

I woke up with a heavy head this morning, still suffering from the Malaysia’s 13th election hangover. The election result really didn’t help to boost my energy level despite having a comfortable bed at home.

I bet many urban tech-savvy Malaysians had the same feeling too this morning. We didn’t get the change we wanted. Instead, we were raped and robbed by a bullish government with no respect to the Rakyat’s fundamental constitutional rights i.e. to make our voice heard with our votes.

But my fellow Malaysians, today let’s bury this 505 dark day behind us. When you walk out from your house, let’s hold your head up high. For the fact the you felt lousy when you woke up this morning, it shows that you are a REAL PATRIOT who love your country, Malaysia, a land we called home.

We might have lost a battle. But despite all the cheatings before and during the 13th election (Bangla import, sudden blackouts, gangsterism, money politics, last min dubious ballot boxes rushed into polling station etc) and billions of Ringgit spent by BN, I don’t think we lost, In fact we gained further traction as the Rakyat managed to reduce BN’s seats from 145 seats to 133 seats.

So did we lose? NO! THE RAKYAT DIDN’T LOSE! WE MADE SMALL LITTLE STEPS FORWARD. Great people like Mahatma Gandhi and Aung San Suu Kyi fought their respective war for years before they achieved what they wanted for the people.

One thing for sure, everytime when I see the government trying to oppress the Rakyat, we grow stronger and more united. I saw this beautiful phenomena in the Bersih rallies, Himpunan Kebangkitan Rakyat rally, GE12 and even GE13. We helped each other as MALAYSIANS without looking at our skin colours and religions. I saw the same beautiful scenes yesterday at the polling stations where Malaysians worked together to attempt to defend our rights. This is something that we should be proud of, and I definitely am proud of being a Malaysian.

So, to all the:
1. PACABA volunteers at the polling stations – Malaysia thank you and we are proud of you.
2. “Ghostbusters” citizen – Malaysia thank you and we are proud of you.
3. citizen who used their flesh to block suspicious cars carrying dubious ballot boxes into the polling stations – Malaysia thank you and we are proud of you.
4. citizen who tried to protect other citizen from gansterism and intimidation – Malaysia thank you and we are proud of you.
5. citizen who guarded the gate at the polling station so that no one was allowed to go in after polling hours- Malaysia thank you and we are proud of you.
6. 80% eligible voters on the electoral roll who voted – Malaysians thank you and we are proud of you.
7. Malaysians who returned hom from oversea to vote AND Malaysians who voted oversea – Malaysia thank you and we are proud of you.
8. Orang Kurang Upaya (OKU) and the elderly who braved the rain and physical challenges but still voted – Malaysia thank you and we are proud of you.
9. bullies who used all sorts of dirty tricks to cheat and gangster to intimidate the Rakyat – Malaysians thank you because you made us stronger and more united between different races.
10. the 20% of eligible voters who didn’t vote and the rest of the Malaysians who didn’t even bother to register to vote – You are welcome.

So, my fellow Malaysians who still feel sad, the little small steps we made yesterday show that if we work together, we can move forward and make changes (small or big). Always remember, loyalty to the country always. Loyalty to the government when it deserves it. People should not be afraid of their governments. Governments should be afraid of their people. In anything, once we give up on hopes, we have nothing. So, LET’S KEEP OUR CHIN UP AND NEVER GIVE UP!